Monday, May 16, 2016

SSLC Results to be announced on 16th May 2016 at 03:15 PM

Finally Karnataka state board has announced the SSLC/10th Results at 3:15 PM, due to over load of traffic , students are facing some issue with the websites.

Students are advised to check the results on the following websites.

Follow the below instructions.

Enter your Reg NO:

All The Best

Monday, May 9, 2016

The family of animals : PROTOZOA

elephant is a big animal” “dinosaurs no more here on the earth” “snakes are poisonous” “beautiful birds fly in skies” “we would like to eat fishes” etc etc are a very simple statements made in our daily life and so many times we will go to zoo and enjoy them in their natural habitat. But friends do you know that there are plenty of animals which can’t be seen through necked eyes ! Yes lets look into them now in detail…
Animals can be distinguished from plants by their capacity of movement, presence of distinct organ systems. Its still very difficult to estimate the actual number of animals on the Earth, as because they are scattered in water, air and on land too. To learn them there is a branch of biology called zoology and can be defined as science of animals.
All animals in the world are broadly classified into 2 groups called INVERTEBRATES without backbone & VERTEBRATES with backbone and vertebral column.
Meanwhile animal kingdom is broadly classifies into two subkingdoms

  1. PROTOZOA – with single body cell, such as amoeba, euglena, paramecium etc and
  2. METAZOA – with numerous body cells, such as invertebrates and vertebrates.
The major distinguishing characteristics of protozoa are given below:
7. 1. They do not have cell wall; some however, possess a flexible layer, a
pellicle, or a rigid shell of inorganic materials outside the cell membrane.
8. 2. They have the ability during their entire life cycle or part of it to move by
locomotor organelles or by a gliding mechanism.
9. 3. They have heterotrophic mode of nutrition, whereby the free-living
forms ingest particulates, such as bacteria, yeast and algae, while the
parasitic forms derive nutrients from the body fluids of their hosts.
10. 4. They reproduce primarily by asexual means, although in some groups
sexual modes also occur.

Friday, May 6, 2016

How do ultrasound scans work?

Although ultrasound travels through soft tissue and fluids, it bounces back off denser surfaces. Ultrasound will travel through blood, for example in the heart chamber, but much of it will echo (bounce back) when hitting a heart valve.

If there are no solid gallstones in the gallbladder, ultrasound will travel straight through, but when there are stones, ultrasound will bounce back from them.
The denser the object the ultrasound hits, the more of it bounces back.
The bouncing back, or echo, is what gives the ultrasound image its features - varying shades of gray reflect different densities.
Ultrasound is commonly used in medicine today. Health care professionals can use sonography for either diagnosis or treatment (therapeutic procedures), as well as for guidance during procedures that require intervention, such as biopsies.
A medical professional who performs ultrasound scans is called a Sonographer. Scans, or images are then interpreted by radiologists, cardiologists, or other medical specialists. The sonographer usually holds a transducer; a hand-held device which is placed on the skin of the patient.

Lets we see some of the examples of medical sonography:
Ultrasound in anesthesiology
Ultrasound is often used by anesthetists for guidance (accuracy) when injecting needles with anesthetic solutions near nerves.

Used in echocardiography, also known as cardiac ultrasound. Two-dimensional slices of the heart are imaged. Modern devices can produce 3-dimensional images.
As well as creating images of the cardiovascular system, echocardiograms can accurately assess the speed of blood flow and cardiac tissue at specific points using pulses or continuous wave Doppler ultrasound. The health care professional can assess the function and state of cardiac valve areas, abnormalities between the left and right side of the heart, valvular regurgitation (blood leaking from valves), as well as working out how well the heart pumps out blood.
Arterial sonography can also be used to assess the patency and possible blockage of arteries, as well as diagnosing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Venosonography may help determine how severe a case of venous insufficiency might be.
Ultrasound in emergency medicine
The use of ultrasound in emergency medicine has grown considerably over the last two decades. In fact, for emergency medicine ultrasound training has become increasingly popular.
Today, in emergency medicine, ultrasound is used in the FAST (Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma) for assessing trauma, pericardial tamponade (fluid builds up in the sac in which the heart is enclosed; the pericardium) or hemoperitoneum (blood in the peritoneal cavity).
Sonography is also used to speed up care for patients with suspected gallstones orinflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis). These patients usually come in with abdominal pain in the right upper quadrant.
Abdominal Sonography (gastroenterology)
Using ultrasound, the healthcare professional is able to see images of the spleen, kidneys, bile ducts, gall bladder, liver, aorta, inferior vena cava, pancreas and other solid organs located in the abdomen. If the appendix is swollen, as may be the case with appendicitis, it can sometimes show up in the imaging. Sonographers say that certain quantities of fat and gas in the bowel can sometimes block the ultrasound waves, making diagnosis more difficult.
Newborn infants (neonatology)
The Sonographer can perform an ultrasound scan on an infant by placing the probe in the newborn's fontanelle (soft spot in the skull) to check for abnormalities in the brain,hydrocephalus and preiventricular leukomalacia (a form of white-matter brain injury). As the Fontanelle gets smaller in time, the quality of the images becomes poorer.

Ultrasound and neurology
Ultrasound may be used to measure blood flow in the carotid arteries. Known as carotid Ultrasonography, the scan looks out for blood clots and atherosclerotic plaque build-up. A carotid duplex is a form of carotid ultrasonopgraphy using Duplex ultrasonography, which may include a Doppler ultrasound - a test which can reveal how blood cells move through the carotid arteries.
Obstetric Ultrasonography
Ultrasound is used to create images of the fetus or embryo in the uterus. Today, often referred to simply as an ultrasound scan, it is part of standard prenatal care. Obstetric Ultrasonography can reveal various aspects of the fetus' health, as well as the mother's. It can also help the health care professional assess the progress of the pregnancy.
The probe, or transducer is typically placed on the mother's abdomen, but may also be placed in her vagina - transvaginal Sonography. A transvaginal scan gives a clearer picture during early pregnancy, and may be a better option for obese mothers. A Doppler Sonography shows the fetus' heartbeat, and can help the doctor detect signs of abnormalities in the heart and blood vessels.
Ultrasound and urology
Ultrasound is used in urology for many purposes, such as checking how much urine remains in the patient's bladder after going to the toilet. Organs in the pelvic region can be checked, including the uterus, testicles (to tell testicular torsion from epididymitis). In young adult male patients, ultrasound is sometimes used to distinguish hydrocele or varicocele fromtesticular cancer.
Testicular cancer, even though highly curable, must be treated in order to preserve the man's fertility and overall health.
Pelvic sonographies can be carried out internally or externally. In a male the internal sonogram may be inserted transrectally, while in a female transvaginally. Ultrasound scans of the pelvic floor can help the doctor determine the extent of, for example, a pelvic prolapse, incontinence or obstructed defecation. At higher frequencies, ultrasound can be used to break up kidney stones or crystals (nephrolithiasis).
Musculoskeletal sonography
Ultrasound can be used to examine ligaments, bone surfaces, soft tissue masses, nerves, muscles and tendons.

Ultra science – ultrasonics and man

The baby inside womb is developing well”, “the patient is suffering from stones in the liver”, “something hard substance at 220 meters away from here” etc etc are certain statements we come across in our daily life. But we least bother about the science behind these things. It can be only possible by ‘ultra sound technology’.
Sound is a form of energy , which can travel in medium and is produced by the vibration of matter.
Vibrations produce a wide range of frequencies and of which can be heard are audible and can’t are un audible. We can hear sounds of frequencies ranging between 20Hz to 20KHz and are called audible, where as frequencies beyond 20kHz are ultrasound, can’t hear, but studied under ultrasonics.

  • Ultrasonics, vibrations of frequencies greater than the upper limit of the audible range for humans—that is, greater than about 20 kilohertz. The term sonic is applied to ultrasoundwaves of very high amplitudes. Hypersound, sometimes called praetersound or microsound, is sound waves of frequencies greater than 1013 hertz. At such high frequencies it is very difficult for a sound wave to propagate efficiently; indeed, above a frequency of about 1.25 × 1013 hertz it is impossible for longitudinal waves to propagate at all, even in a liquid or a solid, because the molecules of the material in which the waves are traveling cannot pass the vibration along rapidly enough.
  • Many animals have the ability to hear sounds in the human ultrasonic frequency range. A presumed sensitivity of roaches and rodents to frequencies in the 40 kilohertz region has led to the manufacture of “pest controllers” that emit loud sounds in that frequency range to drive the pests away, but they do not appear to work as advertised.
    • Some ranges of hearing for mammals and insects are compared with those of humans in the table.
    • Frequency range of hearing for humans
      and selected animals
    frequency (hertz)

    grasshoppers and locusts
    whales and dolphins
    seals and sea lions
    An ultrasound scan, also referred to as a sonogram, diagnostic sonography, and ultrasonography, is a device that uses high frequency sound waves to create an image of some part of the inside of the body, such as the stomach, liver, heart, tendons, muscles, joints and blood vessels.
    Experts say that as sound waves, rather than radiation are used, ultrasound scans are safe. Obstetric sonography is frequently used to check the baby in the womb.
    This article looks specifically at ultrasound scans. We also have articles in our knowledge center about CT scansMRI scans and PET scans.
    Ultrasound scans are used to detect problems in the liver, heart, kidney or the abdomen. They may also be useful in helping the surgeon when carrying out some types of biopsies.
    The word "ultrasound", in physics, refers to all sound with a frequency humans cannot hear. In diagnostic sonography, the ultrasound is usually between 2 and 18 MHz. Higher frequencies provide better quality images, but are more readily absorbed by the skin and other tissue, so they cannot penetrate as deeply as lower frequencies. Lower frequencies can penetrate deeper, but the image quality is inferior.
    According to MediLexicon's medical dictionary:
    Diagnostic ultrasound is: "the use of ultrasound to obtain images for medical diagnostic purposes, employing frequencies ranging from 1.6 to about 10 MHz."
    Therapeutic ultrasound is: "high intensity ultrasound causing coagulation necrosis of tissue, used in treatment of some benign tumors, such as uterine leiomyomata."
    Ultrasound scans and sonograms
    The difference between an ultrasound scan and a sonogram is:
    • An ultrasound scan is the procedure, the event
    • A sonogram is the image produced when an ultrasound scan is performed